Genetic Engineering - Cloning, DNA, Stem Cells Pros and Cons
Molecular genetics


The future technology

DNA Chemical Composition

Chemical Composition

A single strand of a DNA molecule consists of a chain of nucleotide subunits (colored boxes). Each nucleotide is made of the sugar deoxyribose connected to an inorganic phosphate group, and to one of four nitrogenous bases.

The phodiester bonds that link the nucleotide subunits to each other attach phosphate group of one nucleotide to the deoxyribose sugar of the preceding nucleotide.

base pairing

The DNA is situated in the nucleus, organized into chromosomes. Every cell must contain the genetic information and the DNA is therefore duplicated before a cell divides (replication).

When proteins are needed, the corresponding genes are transcribed into RNA (transcription).

The RNA is first processed so that non-coding parts are removed (processing) and is then transported out of the nucleus (transport). Outside the nucleus, the proteins are built based upon the code in the RNA (translation).

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